What Is Cyclosporine?

Cyclosporine API chemical structure
Cyclosporine Chemical Structure

Cyclosporine is the main-stream immunosuppressant raw material along with tacrolimus powder and sirolimus (Rapamycin)

It is a white to off-white crystalline solid with a very weird skunk smell, soluble in acetone and methanol, and slightly soluble in water.

Cyclosporine is a polypeptide with eleven amino acids, and they form a circle, this is where the ‘cyclo’ within cyclosporine comes from.

Some people also call it ciclosporine, cyclosporin, and cyclosporin A they are the same thing.

How Is Cyclosporine API Manufactured?

1. Fermentation

Tolypocladium inflatum Cams are used as the production strain.

Fill a 75L tank with a 50L fermentation medium, inoculated with 5×109 spores.

Adjust the PH value of medium to 5.4-4.3, and cultivate it for 72h to get the primary solution.

Fill a 750L fermentation tank with a 500L medium, and seed it with the above primary solution.

Culture it for 6 days to get the secondary solution.

Fill a 4500L tank with a 3000L medium, get it fermented for 12 days, and then we get cyclosporine fermentation broth.

2. Separation

Add an equal volume of ethyl acetate to the fermentation broth to separate the organic layer by extraction.

We separate it by evaporating the mixture under reduced pressure, and then we get the crude product.

In the crude product, we can get cyclosporine and cyclosporine C, where the yield of cyclosporine is about 150-200mg/L cyclosporine C is about 50-100mg/L.

Those two components are further separated by HPLC.

Then the pure powder of cyclosporine is collected by crystalization.

Cyclosporine Usages

As one of the leading cyclosporine manufacturers in China, we must share as much knowledge as we can on it, so its potential for clinical uses can be fully explored by all the researchers in the pharmaceutical industry.

It can be used for human medications as well as the treatment of animal illnesses.

For Humans:

Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat certain autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

It is available as a capsule or solution and is taken orally or injected intravenously.

1. Immunosuppressive agents

One of the main uses of cyclosporine is to prevent organ transplant rejection.

After a transplant, the body’s immune system may recognize the transplanted organ as foreign and try to attack it.

Cyclosporine helps to suppress the immune system and reduce the risk of transplant rejection.

It is often combined with other immunosuppressive medications to provide maximal protection against rejection.

Clinically cyclosporine is mainly used as an immunosuppressive agent for patients with transplants.

It is used to prevent the rejection of allogeneic kidney, liver, heart, bone marrow, and other organs or tissues transplantation

Doctors often prescribe tabs or caps for patients with organ transplants, as they can effectively reduce the activity of the patient’s immune system, so to lower the risks of organ rejections.

Also, it is used for the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host reactions in bone marrow transplantation.

2. Treatment of Immune diseases

It is also used together with adrenocorticotropic hormone for the treatment of some immune diseases.

Cyclosporine is also used to treat certain autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn’s.

These conditions are characterized by chronic inflammation and overactive immune responses, and cyclosporine helps to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation.

3. Off-Label Uses

in recent years, it has been reported to be used in the treatment of uveitis, heavy aplastic anemia, refractory autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, psoriasis, refractory lupus nephritis, etc.

In addition to these uses, it is sometimes used off-label to treat other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and lupus.

Cyclosporine is also made into eye drops to relieve the symptoms of dry eyes.

However, it is important to note that the safety and effectiveness of cyclosporine for these conditions have not been fully established and more research is needed.

It is crucial to use cyclosporine as directed by a healthcare provider.

The dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient’s response to the medication.

Cyclosporine can cause serious side effects, including an increased risk of infection and cancer, and it should be used with caution in certain populations, such as the elderly and those with kidney or liver problems.

In conclusion, cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive medication that is used to prevent organ transplant rejection and to treat certain autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn’s disease.

It may also be used off-label to treat other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, but more research is needed to fully establish its safety and effectiveness for these uses.

It is important to use it as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of the potential risks and side effects of the medication.

For Animals, especially dogs:

As we all know cyclosporine is a popular human medication, and it is also widely used in veterinary clinics.

We will list the common indications of cyclosporine for animals below: 

Atopic dermatitis is common in dogs and is associated with the production of IgE antibodies directed against environmental allergens.

Atopica is not recommended for use on bred dogs unless a veterinarian thinks that the risk-benefit ratio is justified.

If you need it to treat atopic dermatitis in your dogs, and you find the top brands are too expensive, you should find a local Vet clinic for dosage compoundings to lower your cost.

What is even better is: that if your vet does not have the raw materials at good prices, you can recommend us and we will send the samples directly to their clinics for you.

References
  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4895546/
  2. https://vcahospitals.com/know-your-pet/cyclosporine—ophthalmic
  3. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/5284373
  4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ciclosporin
  5. http://www.sjkdt.org/article.asp?issn=1319-2442;year=2018;volume=29;issue=6;spage=1376;epage=1385;aulast=Azarfar
  6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15194300
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4548586/

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